This paper is in Russian. The modern American legislation regarding relations with indigenous peoples of the continent is examined in the article. The author emphasizes some main principles of the federal legislation regarding to American Indians. In the end the conclusion is made that contemporary regulation of the US Indigenous peoples’ rights and basic freedoms occurs at the federal level by virtue of the constitution, federal legislation, signed treaties, judicial precedents, and in part, by a customary law. There is a concept of “Federal Indian Law” which is a set of legally obligatory norms regulating the legal status of the American Indian tribes and their special relations with the federal center.